President William McKinley saw the U

U.S. President William McKinley saw the U.S. role in the Philippines as one of civilizing and Christianizing.

Following the defeat from the Spanish within the War of 1898 the United States gained former Spanish territory, the most salient being the Philippines. President McKinley saw an opportunity to assimilate the Filipinos and to formally annex the country.

By 1895 the problem in Cuba was getting more intense. Cuban rebels who was simply seeking independence from Spain for many years were launching a war for his or her independence, a war which quickly spread over the island and saw to the Spanish forces moving Cuban civilians into re-concentration camps near their military bases on the island in a bid to draw the rebels out into open ground where they could be captured or killed.

McKinley together with most of American public opinion favoured the rebels and were angered by Spain's oppressive actions. As he became president 2 yrs later McKinley opted to negotiate with Spain and urge them to provide the Cubans their independence. However, Spain was unrelenting and did not wish to give in to the rebels demands and continued to employ brutal methods in which to try and pay the island wide anti-colonialist insurrection.

By January 1898 riots broke out in Havana and also the McKinley dispatched the U.S. Navy battleship Maine to safeguard Americans as well as their interests in Havana. A surge destroyed the Maine the following month killing 266 American servicemen.

An investigation in to the sinking from the Maine concluded that the ship was inflated by an underwater mine in Havana Harbour. McKinley didn't request war coupled with attempted to negotiate using the Spanish once again, however they remained vehemently in opposition to ceding independence to Cuba. Congress declared war amidst the public uproar against Spain following a sinking from the Maine.

What ultimately followed was the Spanish-American War which saw to the U.S. Navy engage Spanish forces far from their homeland over Cuba. The war turned out to be a war from the Spanish Empire with the U.S. Navy destroying the Spanish navy during the Battle of Manila Bay within the Philippines. This decisive battle saw Spain left with no navy to protect its Pacific colonies.

Following that America seemed to be victorious within the Caribbean theater of this war following their destruction from the Spanish Navy's Caribbean Squadron. This saw to them dominating the location with superior force leaving Spain an ocean away where it was not able to muster together combat sufficient reinforcements in which to fight the Americans. The Americans had therefore clearly reigned supreme.

More about this topic

    The Philippine-American War, Part IPresident McKinley Assassinated by AnarchistVice Presidential Surprises

    Whilst Spain tried to negotiate solely over Cuban independence the U.S. was eager to annex the territories it had captured from Spain throughout the war. Since they had initially went to fight against along side it from the Cuban rebels seeking independence and liberation they decided it would have been far to ludicrous to consider annexing Cuba. Nonetheless they were wanting to and indeed did annex Guam, Puerto Rico and also the Philippines.

    The Treaty of Paris therefore represents a hinge moment, the end of Spanish colonialism in the Caribbean and the Pacific and also the heralding by a time of American colonialism in its place. The McKinley Administration paid $20 million towards the Spanish for that territories it had annexed from the former empire.

    In 1896 a revolution had also broken out in the Philippines against Spanish rule. The United States fought on a single side as these guerillas against their Spanish occupiers in 1898. When Spain's Pacific Fleet was wiped out throughout the Battle at Manila Bay American troops landed in the capital city. When the Americans signed a proper agreement with Spain (the Treaty of Paris) which saw to the annexation from the Philippines the Filipino's long sought independence was essentially being denied to them by another colonial power.

    McKinley (who had been assassinated by an anarchist before the wars end) trumpeted the war as a crusade to "civilize and Christianize" dubbing the American intervention among "benevolent assimilation" of the apparently 'benighted natives'. This caused further animosity between your Americans and the Filipinos as a lot of the native population fighting against the occupation and colonization of the lands were predominately Moors — Muslims.

    After careful pondering the president scoffed at the idea of returning the islands to Spain, or providing them with to France or Germany ("our rivals within the Orient" because he called them). He seemed to be from the concept of giving the Filipino's self rule, proclaiming that they were "unfit for self-government" and that "they’d soon have anarchy and misrule over there" (the famous poet English Rudyard Kipling wrote 'White Man's Burden', one of his most famous works, in the early stages of the campaign within the Philippines, it was first published with the subtitle 'The United States and the Philippine Islands').

    The Usa invaded and for the next three-and-a-half years fought a guerilla campaign against the Filipinos. The Filipinos quickly realizing they couldn’t win a conventional war against the invaders instead waged a brutal guerilla one.

    The U.S. lost over 4,000 troops during this war against the guerillas. They finally managed to break the proverbial back of the guerrillas, killing some 20,000 of them along with about 200,000 Filipino civilians. The war saw U.S. forces executing policies that were reminiscent towards the ones the Spanish had used in Cuba, probably the most blatant illustration of it was the rounding from the Filipino population under the pretext of isolating the guerrillas. The U.S. Army forced civilians into the things they called 'protected zones' and shot people they found outside of these zones who hadn't been previously processed by them.

    Whilst the main thrust of the initial insurgency that resisted the American occupation was typically broken once the war was declared — by McKinley's successor Theodore Roosevelt — before the war was "officially" within the U.S. military occupational force remained around the island archipelago for an additional 44 years.

    McKinley had explicitly stated that he would put the Philippines into the spotlight of the United States and asserted the U.S. would stay there as long as he was president. His term was cut short by his assassination in 1901 and he didn’t live to determine the war's "official" end.

    Sources

    Philippine American War The History GuyManifest Destiny, Continued: McKinley Defends U.S. Expansionism History MattersImperialism and the Spanish American War Digital History

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