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The NFL souvenirs come under three different categories which are authentic, premier and replica. If you have got the money and enough craze, authentic jerseys are for you. An authentic jersey would feature the same number and would be a look alike of the jersey of your favorite player.

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Now women too accomplishment interests in sports. NFL Jerseys are accessible for women too. There are aswell a aggregate of NFL Jerseys for Kids. In accordance with popular football discipline Darryl Royal, where they ended up “working”. Considering that the year of 2010, the traveling to workforce jacket found while using yoke connected with standards . The Two (through the neckline to the seam inside the center of the chest muscles the neck included) and also from the actual physical Vince Young jerseys” (of the place less than the thumb) ought to be white wine along with includes simply fit along with add-ons meet the criteria products: collections, approximately one ” heavy, place the sleeves, the national boundaries, an above one ” wide may be used in the freeboard along with wrists, the facet seam (insert from the armpits of most pants), the best possible connected with several ins wide are available.

In no way am I saying that Tebow is the greatest man that ever lived or the greatest football player that ever lived. He not. All I saying is that this comparison game that the media plays every time there is a new star is pointless. Adults will have several options as well . There will be replica jerseys, which are an actual replica of the jersey that is used on the field, nfl jerseys Cheap which is licensed by the NFL and finally, the alternate jersey. This jersey is the alternate game jersey that is used for away games and many teams offer this style in a more limited run..

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Following the initial round of betting is full, the dealer spots 3 face up cards while in the center in the table . They are recognized Wholesale nfl jerseys as community cards and this stage with the game is named the flop. Following the flop, the 2nd round of betting starts with the player towards the dealers left.

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It truly is the way you say one thing that may wreck a relationship and not what you will need to say . The wrong way is just to blurt out one thing that you simply know will worsen or distress your partner. The final factor you want is for them to acquire defensive, storm off or burst into floods of tears.

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The following 12 months, Halas renamed the staff the Bears, which was a derivative of a person within the existing baseball groups Personalized NFL jerseys during the area, the Chicago Cubs. The other baseball group, the White Sox, was below a cloud of shame following the Black Sox scandal, and Halas wanted nothing to complete with them. Halas even moved the workforce into Wrigley Field, where the Cubs played.

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certainly won’t get started until you could find assist via anyone offers.

Again, its about adjusting your game. Another adjustment you can make is to open your stance up a little. This will enable you see and track the ball much easier. Really good NFL hat can be crucial in the sport. Let me start via telling you with regard to the nfl jerseys which do not purchase faked. Tops have proven to be removed in line with 3 grades, trustworthy, recognized coupled with replacement .

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Women’s NFL jerseys are accepting added able-bodied known. They’re tailored just a bit abnormally to fit a woman’s body. In 2007, the women’s blush jerseys advised and awash in affiliation with a breast blight fundraiser was awfully able-bodied received.

What is great individuals want a bargain – and aren’t most of us – is that cheap NFL jerseys can actually be premium quality. They should be sturdy and so they won’t destruct easy. They’ll need the different identifiable parts of rather pricey jerseys.

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Besides what mentioned above

You happen to be an NFL fan and you adore . Perhaps you are trying to find a terrific for YOURself , possibly you prefer to acquire a terrific looking jersey for a gift. But there is a few points you might want to know before you ruch out to purchase your 1st NFL jersey.

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Besides what mentioned above, there some injuries unavoidably happened in the football game. In order to build a harmonious atmosphere during the game, it s important to build a friendship with the opposite team and advocate the peaceful competition. Meanwhile, it s also important to strengthen physical training in order to avoid injuries in the game..

Article Body: Excitement has started to build around the 2006 FIFA World Cup in the past couple of weeks with many of the important group deciding games due to be played in the next month or so. Having been involved in numerous conversations about the matches and listened to everybody’s opinion on who would win , I realised that some forward planning was required on my behalf. I decided that I was going to get in early this time around and take advantage of some of the great outsider betting opportunities that are starting to become available.

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A premier nfl jersey is usually made of lighter material, usually nylon or polyester. Sewn on numbers and names of the players, they can look just as good as an authentic jersey although it does not have the same quality of material as the authentic. Their cheaper price makes it really a food option if you want an authentic nfl jersey but just can not afford it..

my enemy is just myself

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NFC offensive player of the week Hakeem Nicks. The Giants ruled Nicks out

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They’ll get a huge test from explosive wide receiver Victor Cruz, who tallied 11 catches for 179 yards and a touchdown in Week 2 . They won’t, however, be facing the Giants’ other big-play threat, NFC offensive player of the week Hakeem Nicks. The Giants ruled Nicks out (foot) for his homecoming game in Charlotte, and he’ll join No.

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President William McKinley saw the U

U.S. President William McKinley saw the U.S. role in the Philippines as one of civilizing and Christianizing.

Following the defeat from the Spanish within the War of 1898 the United States gained former Spanish territory, the most salient being the Philippines. President McKinley saw an opportunity to assimilate the Filipinos and to formally annex the country.

By 1895 the problem in Cuba was getting more intense. Cuban rebels who was simply seeking independence from Spain for many years were launching a war for his or her independence, a war which quickly spread over the island and saw to the Spanish forces moving Cuban civilians into re-concentration camps near their military bases on the island in a bid to draw the rebels out into open ground where they could be captured or killed.

McKinley together with most of American public opinion favoured the rebels and were angered by Spain's oppressive actions. As he became president 2 yrs later McKinley opted to negotiate with Spain and urge them to provide the Cubans their independence. However, Spain was unrelenting and did not wish to give in to the rebels demands and continued to employ brutal methods in which to try and pay the island wide anti-colonialist insurrection.

By January 1898 riots broke out in Havana and also the McKinley dispatched the U.S. Navy battleship Maine to safeguard Americans as well as their interests in Havana. A surge destroyed the Maine the following month killing 266 American servicemen.

An investigation in to the sinking from the Maine concluded that the ship was inflated by an underwater mine in Havana Harbour. McKinley didn't request war coupled with attempted to negotiate using the Spanish once again, however they remained vehemently in opposition to ceding independence to Cuba. Congress declared war amidst the public uproar against Spain following a sinking from the Maine.

What ultimately followed was the Spanish-American War which saw to the U.S. Navy engage Spanish forces far from their homeland over Cuba. The war turned out to be a war from the Spanish Empire with the U.S. Navy destroying the Spanish navy during the Battle of Manila Bay within the Philippines. This decisive battle saw Spain left with no navy to protect its Pacific colonies.

Following that America seemed to be victorious within the Caribbean theater of this war following their destruction from the Spanish Navy's Caribbean Squadron. This saw to them dominating the location with superior force leaving Spain an ocean away where it was not able to muster together combat sufficient reinforcements in which to fight the Americans. The Americans had therefore clearly reigned supreme.

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    The Philippine-American War, Part IPresident McKinley Assassinated by AnarchistVice Presidential Surprises

    Whilst Spain tried to negotiate solely over Cuban independence the U.S. was eager to annex the territories it had captured from Spain throughout the war. Since they had initially went to fight against along side it from the Cuban rebels seeking independence and liberation they decided it would have been far to ludicrous to consider annexing Cuba. Nonetheless they were wanting to and indeed did annex Guam, Puerto Rico and also the Philippines.

    The Treaty of Paris therefore represents a hinge moment, the end of Spanish colonialism in the Caribbean and the Pacific and also the heralding by a time of American colonialism in its place. The McKinley Administration paid $20 million towards the Spanish for that territories it had annexed from the former empire.

    In 1896 a revolution had also broken out in the Philippines against Spanish rule. The United States fought on a single side as these guerillas against their Spanish occupiers in 1898. When Spain's Pacific Fleet was wiped out throughout the Battle at Manila Bay American troops landed in the capital city. When the Americans signed a proper agreement with Spain (the Treaty of Paris) which saw to the annexation from the Philippines the Filipino's long sought independence was essentially being denied to them by another colonial power.

    McKinley (who had been assassinated by an anarchist before the wars end) trumpeted the war as a crusade to "civilize and Christianize" dubbing the American intervention among "benevolent assimilation" of the apparently 'benighted natives'. This caused further animosity between your Americans and the Filipinos as a lot of the native population fighting against the occupation and colonization of the lands were predominately Moors — Muslims.

    After careful pondering the president scoffed at the idea of returning the islands to Spain, or providing them with to France or Germany ("our rivals within the Orient" because he called them). He seemed to be from the concept of giving the Filipino's self rule, proclaiming that they were "unfit for self-government" and that "they’d soon have anarchy and misrule over there" (the famous poet English Rudyard Kipling wrote 'White Man's Burden', one of his most famous works, in the early stages of the campaign within the Philippines, it was first published with the subtitle 'The United States and the Philippine Islands').

    The Usa invaded and for the next three-and-a-half years fought a guerilla campaign against the Filipinos. The Filipinos quickly realizing they couldn’t win a conventional war against the invaders instead waged a brutal guerilla one.

    The U.S. lost over 4,000 troops during this war against the guerillas. They finally managed to break the proverbial back of the guerrillas, killing some 20,000 of them along with about 200,000 Filipino civilians. The war saw U.S. forces executing policies that were reminiscent towards the ones the Spanish had used in Cuba, probably the most blatant illustration of it was the rounding from the Filipino population under the pretext of isolating the guerrillas. The U.S. Army forced civilians into the things they called 'protected zones' and shot people they found outside of these zones who hadn't been previously processed by them.

    Whilst the main thrust of the initial insurgency that resisted the American occupation was typically broken once the war was declared — by McKinley's successor Theodore Roosevelt — before the war was "officially" within the U.S. military occupational force remained around the island archipelago for an additional 44 years.

    McKinley had explicitly stated that he would put the Philippines into the spotlight of the United States and asserted the U.S. would stay there as long as he was president. His term was cut short by his assassination in 1901 and he didn’t live to determine the war's "official" end.


    Philippine American War The History GuyManifest Destiny, Continued: McKinley Defends U.S. Expansionism History MattersImperialism and the Spanish American War Digital History

Best-Selling British author reunites two character

Best-Selling British author reunites two characters from a previous novel in this dark but compulsively readable thriller.

Mo Hayder's 2009 novel SKIN reunites Detective Inspector Jack Caffery of Bristol's Major Crimes Investigation Unit with Sgt. Phoebe "Flea" Marley from the Underwater Search Unit in a baffling case involving submerged bodies, suspicious suicides, African hoodoo, kinky adult sex toys and a man with a fetish for human skin. (Caffery and Marley first worked together in Hayder's 2008 thriller Ritual. )

Anti-Hero And Anti-Heroine

Like many of the law enforcement types in noirish thrillers both Caffrey and Marley are willing to break the general public laws of the profession to get at their own private version from the truth.

Marley is struggling to dispose of a body she based in the trunk of her car. (She fears her younger brother Thom continues to be involved in a hit and run fatality.)

Caffery has their own dark secrets (one of which is revealed within the closing pages of the novel.)

If Caffery and Marley would go on to start dating ? they’d probably discover there is a lot in common. As it is, they exchange dialogue in only one scene of the book (and that’s on the job.)

Author Has a Gift for Understatement

Reviewing this novel presents something of a challenge since any discussion from the plot can unwittingly disclose a few of the details in Hayder's carefully crafted narrative. It’s not giving anything method to state that the novel is both an intriguing character study as well as an absorbing mystery. We find out about the characters and why they do what they do as the mystery is constantly on the deepen and evolve.

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    Reading between your lines, we can tell Marley continues to be grieving within the accident that claimed the lives of her parents. Thom may be "irritating, distant and otherwordly. Less than with it." But he’s the only family Marley leaves and she is going to do anything to keep him from jail. Caffrey is also haunted by familial loss. His older brother was murdered by a pedophile and the griefstricken mother defected in the family when Jack was eight years old. The death of his brother and also the desertion of his mother happened 30 years ago however the events have left a lasting mark on his psyche.

    We can assume from the novel that Flea is a fit, athletic and attractive woman in her late twenties and when had an energetic social life. Because the death of her parents, she’s walled herself up emotionally. She still lives in their former home. Hayder hints that Caffrey had his share of girlfriends while stationed in London. Since transferring to Bristol, he’s been consorting with prostitutes. ("He'd reached a place, with forty staring him in the face, when he'd arrived at understand that the only talent he’d with women was understanding how to break them. So he went to girls he would never see again.") His sole friend and confidante is really a convicted criminal known only because the Walking Man.

    Although there’s a subtle sexual tension between Marley and Caffery the author doesn't make a big deal about it. "On that day something had passed between them," Hayder writes. "She knew it, and she or he wondered if they were ever likely to discuss it."

    Gripping But Gruesome

    Hayder has obviously done her homework. Within the acknowledgments she thanks a number of British law enforcement officials for helping her in "inching law enforcement procedural details just a little closer to reality." The author singles out Sgt. Bob Randall of the Avon and Somerset Underwater Search Unit for special commendation.

    The author's insistence on providing graphic forensic details to provide the storyplot maximum authenticity may disturb more sensitive readers. Rest assured that the characters have problems with regards to viewing the sufferers of various atrocities. Caffrey, for example, had "learned how not to think about the individual the corpse had once been: how to see decomposed meat and not a person."

    Mo Than simply a Pretty Face

    The prose might be dark but around the dust jacket flap there’s a picture of the attractive blond woman wearing a mischievous smile and a stylish leather jacket. According to the text under the photo Mo Hayder did "as a barmaid, security guard, filmmaker, hostess inside a Tokyo nightclub and teacher of English as a foreign language in Asia." By having an eclectic resume like that she’s probably learned to be non judgmental. The author accepts her characters with all of their flaws and tells their stories honestly and objectively, even if they do, as Flea puts it, "the wrong things for the right reasons."

Visitors to London may go through inclined to conc

People to London may go through inclined to focus on shopping,theatres and museums, but a walk around the Town of London can be very rewarding too.

London has so much to offer the tourist that it may regularly be hard to know where to begin the experience. Popular tourist destinations must be fascinatng themselves, but can be also the starting place for other journeys of discovery. Take the Tower of London, for example.

If you head for Tower Hill around the Circle or District Lines, you’ll exit the underground behind ot the Tower based in london. If you walk downhill, skirting the right or left side from the Tower, you’ll come to the Thames. There’s much to see and explore here, either by deciding to spend a day within the Tower itself, or by exploring the riverbank, both north and south sides.

Turn North Towards the City

If, however, you turn away from the Thames and also the Tower and make your way the unmistakeable landmark from the Gherkin (No. 30 St. Mary Axe), you’ll find yourself going through the heart from the old Town of London. As you walk beneath the tall buildings and explore alleys and underpasses, you’ll find a multi faceted environment which tells a tale of many many centuries of human habitation.

The financial buildings may be tall and imposing, but hidden in it are ancient churches and market places, fortunately protected by planners and still telling their own story amidst the dealers and stock brokers of the City.

Old Churches from the Town of London

Within the City of London, there are still five churches remaining which pre-date the Great Fire based in london, two of which (St. Andrew Undershaft and St. Helen's Bishopsgate) are situated inside a stone's throw of The Gherkin. St. Helen's is literally in the backyard of the giant tower.

Further south for the Thames stands the church of St.Magnus the Martyr; the roadway approach to the old London Bridge ran with the churchyard here (see illustration below). The church bells of St. Magnus and its magnificent clock allow it to be as notable today because it continues to be for a lot of centuries. The initial church building stood only a few hundred yards from Pudding Lane and was destroyed during the Great Fire of London (1666), but was rebuilt under the direction of Sir Christopher Wren in the late seventeenth century.

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    Sometimes, when wandering through the massive commercial canyons of the City, it seems as though there’s a continuing dialogue between your small,half buried churches and the enormous buildings of commerce which populate this intriguing part of London. The idea of the medieval population governed by curfew and guarded by the city walls, north of the Thames and accessible only by crossing London Bridge seems very real to this day when going through the Town of London on foot.

    The Lloyds Building and Leadenhall Market

    Another fascinating contrast of architectural styles is to be found at 1 Lime Street EC3 and just behind it, in which the modernistic Lloyds Building backs onto Leadenhall Market. Leadenhall Market was adopted in Harry Potter and the Philospher's Stone to represent the region near Diagon Alley and also the Leaky Cauldron; its warm colours, range of small inviting shops carrying fresh produce and fantastic plasterwork and ironwork turn it into a very human scale counterpoint to the inside-out space age style of the Lloyds Building.

    Saturated in History

    The area around Blackfriars Bridge and Tower Bridge is wonderful to explore by walking. Fleet Street, St. Paul's Cathedral, the Tate Modern and Shakespeare's Globe are to be discovered by crossing and recrossing the bridges which span the river here, not to mention Borough Market, the Golden Hinde along with a host of other delights.

    Churches, old street names, alleyways, walkways and warehouses all actually emphasise the centuries of humanity whose endeavours have left their mark inside and outside the boundaries of the City's square mile, and also on either side of the river Thames and all along its shores.

The latest research on diagnosing concussions in y

The most recent research on diagnosing concussions in young athletes recommends a multi-faceted approach including parent observations of behavior at home.

Dr. Gerry Gioia, pediatric neuropsychologist, presented an evidence-based model of pediatric concussion in the National Summit on Sports Concussion locked in Los Angeles, California in June, 2012. He provided documentation on four specific areas that should be part of a pediatric evaluation of the athlete who may have sustained a concussion.

Pediatric Concussion Evaluation

According to Dr. Gioia, the young athlete should be evaluated in the following four areas:

Neurocognitive symptomsChild’s subjective or verbal descriptions of symptomsParent’s description of changes in behaviorCognitive changes

Neurocognitive tests are tests that provide an objective measurement on how well the mind is functioning. These kinds of tests include tests for learning, balance, response speed or reaction time, memory retention, and mental processing. Fundamental essentials same tests that sports medicine professionals use to evaluate all athletes with possible concussion.

For example, the evaluator can make five random words and get the athlete to repeat the words. Wait five minutes and have the athlete repeat the job. This tests the brains ability to remember. Memory is really a key area of the brain that can be affected when it is concussed.

Concussion Symptoms

Subjective symptoms of concussion are evaluated through the use of an indicator check list. Athletes are asked a number of queries about possible concussion symptoms including headache, dizziness, confusion, nausea, sensation of “fogginess”, difficulty with concentration, balance difficulties, sensitivity to light, and sensitivity to sound. Symptoms that are gone through by the athlete are documented on a cheque list. This is repeated daily as a way to document the amount of symptoms and just how long they last within the athlete.

Because young athletes may not have the verbal skills to describe the symptoms that they may be feeling, Dr. Gioia stated that it’s important to include input from the athlete’s parents on which they are seeing in your own home to assist by having an accurate diagnosis. The focus from the questions must include parent observations in any differences in normal cognitive and/or functional behavior at home.

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    For example, the parent can offer critical information that can assist the sports medicine professional including pre and post-injury changes in:

    Sleep patternsIrritabilityNervousness/anxiety levelsMood SwingsActivity levels

    The last area that should be evaluated include cognitive changes or alterations in the brain’s ability to process information. A concussion has been referred to as a “short circuit” in the brain’s neural connections or capability to process information. One of the ways to find out this is to inquire about questions and see how the athlete responds.

    For example, depending on the athlete’s age, common cognitive evaluation questions can include naming the months of the year backwards order, counting backwards from 100 by fives, or counting by twos or threes. The purpose would be to evaluate how well the brain is functioning. When the athlete struggles with information which should come easily, this is usually a symptom of a concussed brain.

    The review of the presentation was that diagnosing concussion in young athletes must follow a multi-dimensional model such as the synthesis of information collected from the variety of tools and resources. The accuracy from the diagnosis is determined by the sports medicine professional’s experience and data with assessment tools for concussions.

    Carefully following the recommendations from current researchers will help both doctors and parents to be better informed on which to consider and the way to recognize a concussion. Early recognition is essential for any full recovery.


    Gioia, Gerry Dr. (2012). Evidence Based Model of Pediatric Concussion Assessment presented at the National Summit on Sports Concussion along with other Athletic Injuries. Los Angeles, California.

    Strickland, Tony Dr. (2012). Gender and Associated Variables Associated with neurobehavioral Outcomes in Sport-induced Concussion presented in the National Summit on Sports Concussion along with other Athletic Injuries. La, California.

Allow that to infamous “luck from the Irish” rub o

Let that infamous “luck from the Irish” rub off you and your littles ones with this St. Patrick’s Day craft for kids: hanging tissue-paper shamrock.

The shamrock has long been symbolic of Ireland and St. Patrick's Day. Be part of the symbol's magic and history by creating one you are able to proudly display in your house. Kids will love transforming a cereal box and tissue paper into a festive decoration while you share exactly what the shamrock symbolizes. When dangling from the perch, this St. Patrick's Day craft for children will breathe some lucky spirit into its surroundings.

Things you’ll need:

Green tissue paperGreen paper (construction/card stock)Nontoxic glue stickScissorsCereal boxHole puncherGreen pipe cleanerUnsharpened pencil

Steps to make a Hanging Tissue-Paper Shamrock (Scroll to bottom for pictures and click on to enlarge)

    Trace or draw a shamrock shape onto a bit of green paper and work out. You can make it as small or large as you like. As it does require some time to patience, a smaller you might be better suited to younger kids.Having a glue stick, have child apply glue towards the back of the shamrock and glue it onto a piece of cardboard (cereal boxes are perfect).Cut the glued shamrock with cardboard backing from the box.With the hole puncher, make a hole in the middle of the shamrock's top.Have child thread a pipe cleaner through the hole and twist ends together for a hanging loop. For a two-tone look, wind two pipe cleaners of various shades of green together and then thread through the hole.Cut your tissue paper into strips which are 2" wide. Wrinkled tissue paper works just as well, so if you happen to be saving it from gift bags, this is the time to put it to get affordable use. Feel free to use different shades of green together if that is what you have available.Pile the strips evenly on top of one another and cut into squares approximately 2" x 2".Place your tissue-paper squares into a bowl.Have child apply glue to a small section of the shamrock at any given time therefore it doesn’t dry while they’re using the paper. Starting in the middle and dealing outwards is easiest.Next, they can place the unsharpened pencil end in to the center of a tissue-paper square and wrap/twist it tightly round the pencil.Have them press the tissue paper onto the glued section with the pencil.Repeat above step before the paper-covered cardboard is no longer visible.For any finishing touch, the tissue paper could be trimmed with scissors to look more uniform. To enhance the shamrock shape, trim into and across the edges.Hang and revel in!

This St. Patrick's Day craft for kids is a great way to be part of the excitement and good reputation for the vacation. If you could use additional luck and kissing the Blarney stone or catching a leprechaun seems unlikely, opt for a simpler approach and pay homage with a hanging tissue-paper shamrock.

or atma is important in all branches of Hinduism

The soul, or atma is essential in most branches of Hinduism. The soul is referred to as being eternal, blissful within the Bhagavad-gita by Lord Krishna.

The atma refers to an individual soul that’s sometimes called "the self" and Hindus believe that all living entities possess a soul. Based on the Bhagavad-gita each atma is eternal: "it was never created and can never perish," the soul is distinct from both mind and the body. Consciousness is really a characteristic of the soul, as the body with no soul is lifeless. Concepts of karma and reincarnation are integral to understanding the soul.

The Soul's Connection with Karma

The soul is referred to as eternal truth, consciousness and bliss. In Hinduism the law of karma is important in which the soul leaves your body like casting off old clothes. A brand new is given according to ones karma – a persons thoughts, deeds and actions. A soul reincarnates until it realizes God and attains liberation or moksha. Hindu scriptures describe that the God-realized guru is needed to attain God.

As the soul migrates in one body to another, he suffers the actions and reactions of his past activities. These activities could be changed when one is in the mode of goodness, and dedicates their actions to God. The physical is likened to a vehicle for that soul. A car cannot move without a driver; your body won’t work without the soul. If the soul identifies with the body he then becomes distressed, as looking after the body alone cannot fulfill the soul.

The Bhagavad-gita's Description from the Soul

The Bhagavad-gita is among the most important scriptures for Hindus. Inside it Lord Krishna explained that each living entity is definitely an individual soul, and though the body changes continuously every moment the soul stays the same. For example the body manifests as a baby, child, youth, and an old man. Yet the same person is there, and doesn’t undergo any change: "For that soul there is neither birth nor death anytime. He’s not enter into being, does not come into being, and will not enter into being. He is unborn, eternal, ever-existing and primeval. He isn’t slain when the is slain" Bhagavad-gita 2.20.

The illustration of the sun’s rays and also the sunshine is given to describe the soul's position. As the sun can be found in one place illuminates the whole universe; a spirit soul, although within the heart is illuminating the entire body with consciousness. The consciousness of the individual soul, although same in quality as God, isn’t supreme, because the consciousness of the soul is restricted to one's own body. But the paramatma or super-soul can be found in most bodies because the friend of the baby soul, and is alert to all entities. This super-soul is a witness of all of the soul's activities and a partial expansion of God's supreme consciousness.

Many are confused through the position of the soul, super-soul and God in Hinduism. Some think that everyone is God, however the Bhagavad-gita explains that souls are individual parts of the Supreme. They are same in quality but smaller in quantity, and therefore liable to being taught in illusion of fabric energy.

More about this topic

    Krishna- The Supreme Personality of GodheadThe Bhagavad GitaQuotes In the Bhagavad Gita

    Sources: Hinduism instantly (Accessed August 2, 2011). Atman: The Soul, The actual Self (Accessed February 29, 2012). Bg 2.17 (Accessed February 29, 2012). Bg 2.20 (Accessed February 29, 2012). Bg 13.34 (Accessed February 29, 2012).

Accessorizing your ride should be fun; but make sa

Accessorizing your ride should be fun; but make safety the primary concern.

Bicycling has been a favorite sport and recreation option for many decades. The “look” of the rider has made many changes through the years mostly due to safety. Here are some do’s and don’ts regarding how to safely dress.


Helmets are the most significant safety item when riding a bike. Look for the seal of approval from the American National Standards Institute (ANSI), the customer Product Safety Commission, or even the Snell Memorial Foundation before purchase. Should an autumn occur, the helmet will help shield the top from a potentially life-threatening head trauma. Fit can also be important. Make sure that the helmet fits snugly on the head, without tipping forward or backward. Adjust straps if required. The helmet ought to be flat on the top of your head. If you have taken a fall and smacked your helmet, do not use again; it may not withstand another blow. Replace the helmet; it’s a little investment for safety.


Next to the helmet, gloves play a significant part for hand safety. They allow for better gripping and charge of the bike and can help with keeping your hands dry. Many gloves come with additional padding which will help cushion both hands and absorb the shock from the road, while cycling, and when you need to fall. Gloves also provide warmth during a cool ride. There are so many styles to choose from, let your inner child result in the selection.

Shorts and Tops

There’s nothing worse than the usual sore butt. Shorts can be found with padding and may make your ride much more comfortable and enjoyable. The synthetic liner will decrease the quantity of chafing that could occur. A little hint, don’t wear underwear with the shorts; they will seem like they’re cutting to your skin. It is also advised to put on clothing which has reflective materials for better visibility during the night. Oh, and those fancy spandex tops that you simply see are in fact designed to decrease resistance to the wind on our bodies.

More on this topic

    Accessories for Child Trailers and Trailer BikesRaising Awareness of Bicycle SafetyHow to show a young child to Ride a Bicycle Without Stabilisers


    Glasses protect you from the sun’s rays and also the wind. Wraparound lenses would be best because they don’t hinder peripheral vision, providing you with an unobstructed view. There are numerous styles as well; try on and simulate the riding experience to determine what the first is the best for you personally.


    The type of shoe that you employ to ride a bicycle is a few preference and just how much cycling you need to do. For the casual biker who may classify themselves like a weekender, a light hiking shoe or cross-trainer shoe may suffice. These shoes allow for biking as well as walking. For people who are dedicated to the game, a stiffer, biking shoe may be more appropriate. They come either without or with clips, that fit into the pedal. The stiffness of the shoe helps to facilitate the ability transfer to your pedals. REI provides a great review of how to pick bike shoes.

    Accessorizing your ride ought to be fun; but make safety the main concern.

Chef Lee Cooper combines skills honed in certain f

Chef Lee Cooper combines skills honed in certain of the world’s finest restaurant kitchens with local ingredients and French culinary technique at L’ Abattoir.

L'Abattoir combines locally sourced West Coast ingredients with classical French technique in the experienced eyes and hands of Chef Lee Cooper and his culinary team.

Like many chefs Cooper discovered his passion to cook in early stages. He says, "My dad owned and managed several A&W restaurants on Vancouver Island. From a very young age, I worked in the kitchen area pre and post school to earn spending money. As well, my uncle, Chef Bernard Casavant would be a highly-regarded chef in Vancouver, and seeing his great success helped me realize that as being a chef might be a career choice that will provide me with lots of opportunities to achieve success."

Hard Work and Dedication

Chef Cooper's early career started after going for a one year culinary program at Malaspina College in Nanaimo. He went to work for his uncle Chef Bernard Casavant at his restaurant for two years in Whistler before opening Rod Butters' fine dining restaurant Fresco within the Okanagan. The chef moved to the U.K to cook at Heston Blumenthal's internationally renowned, three star Michelin restaurant The Fat Duck where he admits that he learned, "simply how much hard work and dedication was necessary to cook at the highest level."

He moved back to the West Coast and took a job at The Pear Tree restaurant before another internationally known chef, Jean-Georges Vongerichten, recruited him to spread out his West Coast restaurant. He admits that after 13 years of cooking he was all set to go it alone and thus L'Abattoir was created.

Part of being a chef is learning from those who you've worked under. Cooper highlights, "You take the great habits, ideas and leadership skills the thing is on the way making them a part of your repertoire, so when the thing is stuff that don't work you make mental notes from the items that you have to avoid when you are the chef."

In relation to specific chefs who’ve positively influenced him the chef says, "There definitely have been several chefs who may have had a major affect on me in additional direct ways as well: guys like Bernard Casavant, Scott Jaeger, Rod Butters, Michael Allemeier and Mark Filatow have all had an effect on how I look at cooking, leadership in the kitchen and more importantly how to run a business."

More on this topic

    Gourmet Cooking Schools in OntarioPilar Cabrera and 2010 Chefs Tour of OaxacaPhoenix Cooks! Heats The Valley With Top Chefs

    "Would I like Eating This?"

    Chef Cooper's method of food is easy and straightforward. He explains, "I attempt to prepare food that our guests enjoy eating. It’s fairly simple really: you conceptualize a dish beginning with the raw product and work through it logically. Then you definitely view it and say, would I enjoy eating this, and may I manage to sell it at a cost that individuals are willing to pay? You may be the best cook in the world but if you don't earn money it ceases to become a business and running your personal restaurant becomes merely a very costly hobby."

    For Cooper there's nothing like using locally sourced ingredients. He says, "You actually can't beat serving produce picked that morning or eggs laid that day to guests. Dishes created using fresh local ingredients simply have a lot more life in them. Sometimes you have to be a bit more flexible, because small producers can’t always guarantee that they’ll be able to supply all you need, however the incredible quality of the items they grow causes it to be well worth the effort."

    In terms of farms he makes use of the chef mentions Hazelmere Organics in Surrey and North Arm Farm in Pemberton.

    Seasonality plays most in Chef Cooper's cooking. He admits that, "Cooking seasonally is simply good sense. You take advantage of things that are for sale to only a couple of weeks enjoy yourself creating dishes around them. When they’re gone you progress on to the next thing that’s prepared to be harvested. No one wants to eat the same thing all the time anyway."

    Being an executive chef isn't a simple matter of cooking as Chef Cooper explains. He admits that, "Leadership, drive, stamina, adoration for the business. Both capability to build a team that may execute how well you see, and also the stamina to continually maintain and rebuild that team. Understanding that your staff is things are critical to being able to run a good kitchen. It’s quite simple to become an outstanding cook, but being an excellent chef is really a entirely unique ball game because of so many different things that need your attention."

    At no more the day Cooper says he loves his job because, " It’s fun. I get to work with people who cook simply because they enjoy it, not for the pay cheque."

    For more information, visit

    This interview with Lee Cooper was conducted via email.

Tethering is a technique of keeping livestock like

Tethering is a technique of keeping livestock like horses secured to a specific area even without the fencing. Instead, the animal is tied with a chain or rope.

The chain or rope is secured to a stake in the ground or any other secure fastening just like a tree and also the horse wears a head collar or perhaps a collar like a leather belt around its neck to add it to the tether.

Whilst for many horses, it is employed only like a temporary approach to placing the horse on fresh grazing, for others, it is their everyday existence. In some areas of the united kingdom and Ireland patches of ground deemed suitable by owners can contain high amounts of tethered horses in close proximity to each other.

Origins of Tethering

Historically and traditionally tethering continues to be associated with the travelling community who obviously did not have the chance to fence land for their animals since they were permanently on the go. Instead the horses were grazed on any patch of grass which afforded enough space and in which a complaint was unlikely to be lodged at short notice.

Generations ago, when travelling horses and their owners were constantly roving from site to site, it was not a particular issue. The horses were worked hard pulling vehicles or being ridden the majority of the day, and were often very tired by the time that the group made camp- at this point they would gladly graze quietly and doze on their tethers. Because the camp soon moved on there was rarely any time for complaints or objections, and frequently the horses had left before residents even noticed they had been there.

Issues with Tethering

Tethering is extremely controversial for any number of reasons.

Modern travelling families have a very different lifestyle from their forebears, often relatively static, and rarely work their horses towards the extent that they are in the past, meaning that tethered horses can be much more restless and much more prone to get themselves yet others into trouble.

However the lives of travellers might have changed, tethering still remains an accepted way of grazing and looking after their horses and it is strongly defended through the community whenever it is challenged by political or animal welfare groups. Representatives point out that it is an ancient tradition central for their way of life, along with a far safer practice compared to free grazing, where horses are simply dumped loose on open land and will wander freely concerning the neighborhood, even into gardens and onto crop fields.

More about this topic

    Benefits of Electric Fencing for HorsesHow to Tie a HorseDesensitize Your Horse During Ground Work

    Travelling people are often careful introducing their horses towards the tether from an earlier age and will actually sell their horses as ‘educated to the tether’.

    Since the economic downturn lots of people who’d previously have kept their horses at livery have considered the reduced cost alternative of grazing them on waste or common land wherever they think it is, often using tethering to secure them. They may not understand how dangerous this practice could be if the horse is unused to some tether and panics. This quite recent rise in inexperienced handlers and horses adopting tethering might have lead to a rise in negative incidents involving tethered horses.

    The legal side of using what is often private or council owned land for grazing without permission is also of interest to a lot of. Horses can create a great deal of mess and damage, churning up the land in wet weather, grazing patches of ground bare, and damaging trees or fences which may be employed as a makeshift stake on their behalf.

    For many animal lovers though, the primary concern is how comfortable a lifestyle these tethered horses have.

    Welfare of Tethered Horses

    According to UK codes of practice drafted through the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (DEFRA) to guard the welfare of equids (horses, ponies, donkeys as well as their hybrids) elderly or infirm animals, heavily pregnant mares, nursing mares with foals at foot and youngstock under 2 yrs old should not be tethered, nor should tethered animals be kept within the same area as free roaming animals. In fact observers often make sure all such practices are common in any area where tethering is prevalent.

    Opponents of tethering horses explain that the horses are exposed to heat of the sun, the entire force from the wind and rain, and to the constant annoyance of flies as they are not able to move from a relatively small, often exposed, spot to find any shade or shelter. They’re also vulnerable to harassment or injury from dogs, children or teenagers, since they cannot escape from provocation- similarly there’s a risk to any person or animal approaching a tethered horse which might lash out or charge their way if it’s nervous and feels threatened.

    It is argued that tethered horses rarely plenty of water because they are often provided with limited bucketfuls once or twice each day by hand, and then any containers left with them are often tipped over through boredom or the look for fresh grass underneath. The quantity of feed they can access can also be often of interest, as if the horse is not checked regularly and moved around to achieve fresh grazing every day approximately, the region within reach from the tether can soon become overgrazed and nothing more than an area of mud.

    Some horses are not checked regularly enough to ensure their basic feed and water requirements are now being met, or to ensure they haven’t yet been hurt or are sickening by any means. Several horse charities can report problem reports of young tethered horses being left unchecked for such a long time that they have outgrown their tethers, which eat in to the flesh of their neck or head, causing serious or painful injuries.

    Much natural behaviour is either difficult or impossible for horses on tethers. They are able to only move about a comparatively small circle, and equine play, as bucking, galloping and kicking is highly restricted. Because they should be kept a secure distance apart to help keep two horses from becoming tangled, the enjoyable social activity of mutual grooming between horses can’t be practiced.

    There are a good many horror stories of horses being killed or injured by their tethers. Horses happen to be strangled by slipping into ditches or down embankments at the perimeter of the grazing area and not being able to free themselves, or by tangling the rope or chain around a tree or even another horse. When the chain entangles the horse’s limbs also it panics they can easily be permanently damaged or broken.

    Should the horses be able to reach each other, perhaps because one person has miscalculated the distance of his horse’s tether, a resulting entanglement can lead to violent struggles prone to cause choking or breakage of limbs. Similarly a horse that’s loose but shares grazing space having a tethered horse may become tangled in the chain or rope potentially causing serious or fatal problems for both tethered animal and the loose one.

    Tethering and Traffic Accidents

    By far one of the biggest issues raised in objection to tethering is the number of horses that break free and therefore are involved with traffic accidents. This really is all too common, particularly as horses are often tethered on grass verges at the roadside. Frequently the horses involved with collisions with vehicles are killed. A whole lot worse, the sheer weight and size of horses represents some risk to the driver and passengers as they possibly can crush smaller cars on impact. Many reports given about such incidents suggest that the folks within the vehicles only escaped death or serious injury because they were driving large cars or vans.

    What you can do

    Tethering itself is not illegal, but anyone can monitor tethered horses to be in good health and are being correctly looked after. Watch out for a tether on the point of breaking or coming loose, and if necessary alert police, particularly if the horse is near roads.

    Check horses for any wounds particularly in the region from the tether itself. The horses ought to be in good weight, not ribby and angular especially round the spine and hip. Also, they ought to not show signs of ill health for example running nose or eyes, severe coughing or wheezing. Sunburn is a very common problem for horses staked in summer so search for severe scabbing and soreness especially round the nose of horses with pale or flesh coloured skin on the muzzle. Learn about coping with horses who may need the intervention of a rescue group.

    If a particular tethered horse or perhaps a number of them causes concern speak to your local welfare organisation. In the united kingdom the RSPCA and World Horse Welfare have inspectors that can come out to look at the horse(s) in question.


    Code of Practice for that Welfare of Horses, Ponies, Donkeys and their Hybrids DEFRA, accessed 02/07/2012.

    Full Recovery for Rescued Stallion- Redwings Horses Sanctuary, accessed 05/07/2012.

    Illegally Tethered Horses, Julian Sturdy accessed 08/07/2012.

    World Horse Welfare accessed 01/06/2012.

Based on the Ecstatic Kabbalah

Based on the Ecstatic Kabbalah, meditation is a way to prophetic union and also the immortality of the soul.

Perhaps the most crucial practice of the Kabbalah and definitely the practice through which the Ecstatic Kabbalists are defined is meditation. According to the Ecstatic Kabbalists, meditation was the method utilized by the ancients to achieve prophetic union, which, as Maimonides explained, was a results of Divine favour bestowed upon the individual who had perfected himself, or herself, in his mental, imaginative and moral faculties. (Guide for the Perplexed Part 2 chs. 32 & 36)

For the Ecstatic Kabbalist, prophecy wasn’t dependent on foretelling the future, because the Bible itself indicates, ““Exactly how should we be aware of word that the Lord hasn’t spoken?” In the event that prophet will speak within the Name from the Lord and that thing shall not occur… with willfulness has the prophet spoken.” (Deut. 18:21-22, Artscroll). Quite simply, foretelling the future is simply a way to separate the real and the false prophet. Nevertheless, even the false prophet is recognised like a prophet, his error is overstepping his bounds and in trying to pass off their own opinion as God’s.

Furthermore, due to the varying examples of prophecy, as describe by Maimonides in his Guide for that Perplexed (Part 2 ch. 37), and given the discrepancy between your numbers of prophets which scripture records and also the number of prophets who have been actually named, it’s reasonable to assume that many prophets were “prophets unto themselves”, e.g., they weren’t sent on any “missions”; rather, the natures of their prophecies were with regards to self-perfection and spiritual enlightenment (Mishneh Torah, Yesodei HaTorah, ch. 7).

As could be gleaned in the writings from the Ecstatic Kabbalists, whether explicitly or implicitly, the Prophetic Path is split into the following stages:

    Mindfulness;Concentration;Quiescence;Introversion;Silence;Divine Inspiration; andProphecy.

The Meditative Stages from the Prophetic Path

The first stage of the meditative path in the Ecstatic Kabbalah is designated by the Hebrew term Hazkarah, literally “remembrance”. Contextually, Jewish tradition invariably associates all incidents of remembrance with an accompanying verbalisation; it is discovered that whenever there is an injunction to remember something, its remembrance is definitely based on its verbal articulation. It’s within this accord that the term Hazkarah can be used homonymously to mean both “remembrance” and “verbal articulation.”

Hazkarah is used in the Ecstatic Kabbalah specifically in regard towards the verbal articulation and remembrance of God’s names, and it is equal to the Arabic word dhikr, which is often used in Sufism to describe the equivalent practice of meditation on the names of God. Generally, it used to describe the practice of any mindful activity, in the same manner that the Sanskrit word smrti, “memory,” is interpreted as “mindfulness” inside the Buddhist Noble Eightfold Path. This linguistic feature of these languages serves to increase the historically oriented word in the English language to the current tense.

More on this topic

    Isaac of Acre – Theurgy and Ecstasy in the KabbalahBiblical KabbalahWhat is Jewish Meditation and also the Kabbalah?

    Mindfulness is the point of origin of all further developments within the ways of the Ecstatic Kabbalah since it roots your brain in a state of spontaneous awareness. It is out of this receptive frame of mind that the Kabbalist reconfigures the mind into an active state of Concentration, designated through the Hebrew term Devekut (lit. “adhesion”).

    This concentrated configuration creates a resonant focusing of all attention and total absorption in the object of concentration, which subsequently results in a state of near perfect internal Quiescence, or Hishtavut to make use of the Hebrew designation (a word which denotes reflexive-equilibrium, i.e., a stable mental attitude). As with mindfulness, Quiescence is in the nature of the goal from the Ecstatic Kabbalah; though unlike mindfulness, the industry stable yet dynamic state, Quiescence is denoted by a certain poise and it is thus qualitatively more sublime than Mindfulness.

    Even so, Quiescence is a relatively artificial state, just as a ball balancing on top of hill is definitely an artificial stillness requiring only the slightest nudge destabilise. Therefore the Kabbalists progress a stage further in which the equilibrium is shattered in order to bring your brain to a still lesser amount of movement; this is the practice of Hitbodedut or Introversion. Within this practice, your brain is drawn into a constantly expanding web of complexity with every new configuration deepening the absorption by recruiting successive quanta of attentive potential; eventually the mind reaches a cognitive threshold and seizes up, those faculties of consciousness that have been utterly consumed with activity suddenly disengage and absolute Silence ensues.

    This Silence, or Demamah within the Hebrew, is a state of primordial presence, embryonic in its character. It’s thus the Hebrew word Demamah also represents a catalogue of other elemental meanings, earth, blood, imagination, and maybe most significantly, “likeness”, as in “Let us make man within our image, after our likeness” (Genesis 1:26, Artscroll).

    These five stages are those which are under the Kabbalist’s direct control, and reaching the most receptive of states, ultimately, in Silence, the Kabbalist now awaits Divine grace to inject him with its Inspiration and illuminate his consciousness. If the Kabbalist-Prophet will be able to keep sufficient passivity during this experience (without being jolted back to ordinary consciousness) the "Divine Inspiration" will spill over into real prophecy, the introduction to supreme infinite reality.

    The Nature of Prophecy and also the Immortality from the Soul

    The Ecstatic Kabbalists inform you that prophecy is a procedure for deification: “He’s felt the Divine touch and perceived its nature, it seems right and proper to me and also to every perfected man he should be called “master” because his name is like the "Name of his Master," whether it is only in one, or in many, or perhaps in all of his names. For the time being he’s no more separated from his Master, and behold he is his Master and the Master is he; for he’s so intimately united with Him, he cannot by any means be separated from Him, for he is He.” (Abraham Abulafia, Sefer haYashar) and “She [the soul] will cleave to the Divine intellect, and it will cleave to her, and she and the intellect become one entity, as if somebody pours out a jug of water into a running well, that all becomes one.” (Isaac of Acre, Otzar Haim)

    The prophetic state can also be the reason for the soul’s immortality in the world to come: “its ultimate aim is the reason from the lifetime of the "World in the future." This aim may be the union from the soul, by this intellection, with God, may He be blessed, for good and ever and eternally, and that thing is called the “image of God” and His likeness, “will live in man everlasting life without any limit, like the lifetime of the Creator, which is their cause.”” (Abraham Abulafia, Hayeh HaOlam HaBah)


    The Mystical Experience in Abraham Abulafia, Moshe Idel.

    Studies in Ecstatic Kabbalah, Moshe Idel.

    28 Jewelled Crown, Daniel Gigi.

Located on two sides of a small lake

Found on two sides of the small lake, Smithville is a charming enclave of Victorian houses which have been renovated and are open to visitors.

The buildings happen to be converted to house shops, cafés, guest rooms and restaurants. Walking around the village it feels as though entering into yesteryear. The pace from the place causes someone to slow down, relax and something almost comes to anticipate seeing people dressed up in colonial garb.

The Smithville Attractions

Although it is a small village, there is a local train which circles the winding streets in a brief loop. Another attraction enjoyed by children is definitely an old-fashioned merry-go-round, complete with organ grinder-type music.

Smithville is really a delightful haven for shoppers. Most of the Victorian houses have been changed into exactly what the locals make reference to as shoppes, with all types of souvenirs, memorabilia, jewelry, clothes and curios. There are also several inns, bakeries, restaurants and cafés, to rest and enjoy the leisurely pace of life here. All of this within brief walking distance.

Here you’ll find hand-made crafts, unusual antiques as well as freshly baked bread or hand-made cosmetics. Most shops are privately operated and not a part of a chain, therefore the items are unique and frequently made based on old recipes or designs.

Another attraction of Smithville are its many special attractions, held all year round. Actually, there are over 30 free weekend events annually in all. These include:

Irish FestivalMayfestRenaissance FairDrum CircleCar Shows and CruisesOktoberfestChildren's FestivalCostume Pet ParadeHoliday Light Show.

The Holiday Light Show

The Holiday Light Show can be experienced through the month of December. It is a delightful display of colorful lights arranged in the conical form of Christmas trees, placed around the little lake in the center of the village. Combined with music from loud speekers, every afternoon through the holidays visitors can also enjoy watching the changing colors of the lights, reflected in the water, as they virtually "dance" to the rhythm from the music.

More about this topic

    Plimoth Plantation Massachusetts: The life span of Native AmericansPlymouth, Massachusetts: Journey to the Birth of the NationEven More Secret Ohio Spots: The Barn and Perkins Restaurant

    Smithville is situated just moments from Route 9, 15 miles north of Atlantic City. In December, once the days are shorter, it’s possible to catch a glimpse of the lights when driving along Route 9, as the Smithville lake is seen in the road.

    The Colonial Inn and also the Barn

    Although it’s a historic building, the Colonial Inn in Smithville is really a favorite getaway with modern amenities and exquisite views from the lake and the village center. It is a favorite romantic getaway and is open to adults only.

    However, youngsters are welcome in the Barn, only a few steps away. Fully modernized, The Barn has spacious rooms well suited for family gatherings and weekends away.

    Whether in winter or summer, when visiting Atlantic City or Port May in New Jersey, Smithville can be an added attraction to enrich one's trip.

Titanic: the Ship Magnificent (vol

Titanic: the Ship Magnificent (vol. 2) is just one of many books on Titanic. However it includes a wealth of detail on interior planning and fitting not found elsewhere

In 1912, the White Star liner Titanic sank, and also over 1,500 people lost their lives. One hundred years later, the ones are still referring to the ship that now lies at the end from the sea, two miles down. Titanic has spawned several films and numerous books. Titanic: the Ship Magnificent is a such book. But it's not for that faint-hearted.

The book will come in two volumes: the second, discussed here, covers interior design and fitting out. It does what most other books fail to do, it examines the finer points of Titanic’s look – from carpets to curtains to the design of the steps. It's technical and detailed, and examines layout and furnishings deck by deck. It offers some marvellous gems about life aboard.

Dining on Titanic

1912 England would be a class-led society, and people in different classes had significantly different experiences. Nowhere was this more obvious than you are on a ship like Titanic where passengers travelled First, Second or Third Class (steerage) depending on their means. At mealtimes, not only were the meals and surroundings different but the ambience differed too. In First, nearly all tables were small, for 2-8 people, creating an intimate feel, whereas in Second and Third, dining was more traditional with long tables.

The call for dinner was different too. In First, a bugler would announce the meal, a nearby steward would back this up. There would be also a dress call, 30 minutes earlier. In Second, passengers were called to dinner by a gong.

The Third Class dining room was quite distinctive, being split down the middle by a watertight door. Single men dined somewhere, women and families alternatively. It was exactly the same arrangement as for cabin accommodation, with single men sleeping at the front from the ship and ladies and families at the rear. But despite these differences, food in steerage was good, and passengers were served by among the stewards.

Titanic: Sanitary Arrangements

Being a steward had its very own challenges, especially for people who worked in steerage. The sanitary arrangements (baths and toliets) on Titanic were fairly great for the period, although passengers sometimes needed to visit another deck to find a toilet. There were also very few private facilities and in Third Class, not many baths.

One of the biggest issues was that some steerage passengers weren’t familiar with the sanitary appliances used, especially those who'd come from the poorer countries. Stewards needed to explain how to make use of the up-to-date flush facilities and Olympic's experience showed that some passengers would turn to using any dark space late at night, rather than walk to a different floor or tackle an unknown, sophisticated system. The following morning stewards had to clean up the mess.

More on this topic

    Titanic Events: Samuel Scott Honored as 1st Victim of RMS TitanicBook Foretells the RMS Titanic DisasterTitanic Honour and Glory Exhibition in Southampton

    Baths were a luxury on Titanic. They were relatively few in number and people who existed used brine; apart from the private baths within the First Class suites, that also had fresh water shower sprays.

    Lights Out on Titanic

    Even the times where passengers could retire was governed by the class structure. While 11 pm was classed as ‘lights out’ time, that being time when the dining rooms closed, in First Class the Reading and Writing room stayed open until 11.30 and the Smoke Room until 12. In Second it had been 11.30 for both. In Third, however, passengers were inspired to retire at 10.30 and women especially were expected to leave the decks by 10 pm in the latest.

    Beds and Bedding

    The kind of bed available varied considerably; for some passengers, these were indeed beds as on land, as opposed to traditional berths. Space allocations per person were also greater in First and Second. Third class bunks were generally of a wooden frame, but crew sleeping in dormitory quarters had metal bunks as did single men in steerage. Single male passengers had standard accommodation, being given mattress-shaped canvas bags full of straw to rest on (palliasses). They often used their bags or luggage as pillows and the only bed linen provided would be a cover for the mattress and a White Star blanket. Apart from the berths, cabins for single men included at least one wall seat, but no washing facilities, lockers or wardrobe.

    This was a realm of difference from Top class accommodation, which ranged from civilised to luxurious. Most of the staterooms were decorated inside a particular style such as Louis XIV or Georgian plus some could be quite ornate. Ida Strauss, who travelled on Titanic, marvelled over her Regency suite; but when exactly the same suite (on Olympic) was subsequently agreed to the Prince of Wales, he couldn’t accept it, feeling that ‘this really is too pretty for me’ (p315)!

    Scotland Road or Park Lane

    Titanic was an intricately built ship and nowhere is more evident than you are on E-deck where there were cabins for those three classes plus some from the crew. These different groups needed to be kept separate with appropriate use of their parts of the ship.

    One of the key options that come with this deck was Scotland Road (sometimes called Park Lane through the officers), the long, working crew passageway. The corridor had wooden flooring, was around 8.5 feet wide in many places, coupled with 7 inch wide waterways on each side make it possible for so that it is washed down. A number of stairways (companionways) were provided off Scotland Road, enabling crew to move about between decks easier.

    Barber Shops as Gift Shops

    As well as providing haircuts, the First Class Barber shop sold useful items for example pens and purses in addition to a range of souvenirs such as flags, plates and spoons. Frank Browne, who is famous for taking some classic photographs of Titanic, purchased a souvenir pin cushion from the First Class Barber shop. This, unfortunately, resembled a miniature lifebelt.

    Titanic: did you know?

    A-deck had 614 numbered locations for deck chairs (288 port; 326 starboard), which gives an idea of how big the ship, but there was no number 13While a number of cabins had fireplaces, the very first Class Smoke room had the only real genuine coal-burning fireplace, the others were fitted for electric heat

    Titanic: the ship magnificent (volume two) is a great resource for the specialist researcher. It’s particularly good on stateroom interior design and ship joinery. There are several lovely photographs, mostly of Olympic where she was like Titanic. Like a detailed reference source it can’t be beaten.

    Further Information

    Beveridge, Bruce et al. Titanic: The Ship Magnificent: volume one: design and construction. Stroud: History Press, 2008.Titanic: the ship magnificent websiteEncyclopedia TitanicaHahn Titanic PlansTitanic Historical Society


    Beveridge, Bruce et al. Titanic: the ship magnificent: volume two: interior design & fitting out. 3rd ed. Stroud: History Press, 2009.

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